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Abhidharmakosha
(skt.: abhidharmakosha; tib.: chu ngunpa dzu) Literally The Treasury of Higher Knowledge. It is one of the five main texts that monks in monasteries study in much detail. It was written by Master Vasubandhu in the 4th century CE. The book presents various important topics such as ontology, psychology, cosmology, causality, states of consciousness, etc. This book is considered to be part of Hinayana, mainly of the Vaibhashika school.
Abhisheka
(skt.: abhisheka; tib.: wang) Wang, usually translated as empowerment, is a complex tantric ritual based on a mandala of a deity which confers the power and ability to engage in certain meditative practices for achieving enlightenment, and thus becoming a Buddha, in order to benefit others as fully as possible. An empowerment also plants new seeds, or potentials.
Aeon
(skt.: kalpa/yuga; tib.: kal pa) In ancient Indian cosmology, an extremely long period of time. 
 
In general, a small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as 336,000,000 years and a mahakalpa is 1,334,000,000 years. There is also another kalpa, even longer than mahakalpa, which is called Countless eon. This is the time it takes after you decide to begin collecting virtue to become a Buddha to actually become a Buddha. Master Vasubandhu says in his Abhidharmakosha that Countless eon is a period of three countless (countless actually means a number: about ten to the sixtieth power) mahakalpas.
Alaya-vijnana

(skt.: alayavijnana; tib.: kunshi namshe) According to the Chittamatra (or Yogachara, Mind Only) this is the eighth consciousness. They believe that this consciousness contains karmic seeds.

Arhat
(tib.: dra chom pa) Sometimes also called Arhant, Arahat or Arahant; female Arhat is called Arhati. A being who has attained the fifth (and the last) path of no more learning by destroying mental afflictions and dualistic ego grasping. 
Arya
(tib.: phag pa) A Noble being, who has attained the third path, the path of seeing emptiness directly. Arya knows the true nature of all phenomena and is a true Sangha refuge. 
Atman
(skt.: atman; tib.: dag) Self. Simply put, self can be compared to unchanging eternal soul. Buddhism does not accept such a self. 
Awakening Mind
(skt.: bodhichitta; tib.: jang chub kyi sem) Usually translated as Wish for Enlightenment or Awakening Mind. Bodhichitta is defined as the wish to achieve Buddhahood for the benefit of others. Bodhichitta is the main mind and not a mental factor and it is an underlying motivation of practitioners of Mahayana Buddhism. Beings who have realized Bodhichitta are called Bodhisattvas

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