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Madhyamika
(skt.: madhyamika; tib.: uma) It is a system founded by Nagarjuna in the second century C.E., based on the Prajnaparamita Sutras of Shakyamuni Buddha, and considered to be the supreme presentation of the wisdom of emptiness. This view holds that all phenomena are empty of self existance and that they arise by dependant origination. It is called middle way because it avoids the two mistaken extremes (so it is in the middle of these two extremes):
1. seeing things as self existent (eternalism)
2. seeing things as non existent (nihilism)
Madhyamika Svatantrika

(skt.: madhyamika svatantrika; tib.: uma rang gyu pa) A system analysing emptiness founded by Bhavaviveka (500-578) which is considered as a lower part of Madhyamika. Madhyamika Svatantrika makes a distinction between the true existence of phenomena and the inherent existence of phenomena. They say that things do exist inherently, from their own side, but that they do not exist truly. Their explanation for this distinction is that things exist from their own side (inherently) as well as being posited by thought, concept. 

Mahakaruna

(skt.: mahakaruna; tib.: nying je chen po) Great compassion. It exceeds ordinary compassion because it is aimed to all samsaric beings equally and besides the wish to remove the suffering of pain and the suffering of change, it also wants to remove the all pervading suffering. In a commentary by Kedrup Tenpa Dhargye on one of the Je Tsongkhapas works, mahakaruna is defined as: Uncontrived state of mind which, no matter what suffering being it may focus upon, feels an uncontrollable wish to free them from their pain with exactly the same intensity of love that a mother feels for her only child.

Mahayana

(skt.: mahayana; tib.: theg chen) Great vehicle. It refers to one of the two general divisions of Buddhism. Mahayana practitioners motivation is Bodhicitta and they strive to reach Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Mahayana has two divisions: Paramitayana or Sutrayana and Vajrayana or Tantrayana, Mantrayana.

Maitreya

(tib: Sangye Jampa) He is the fifth of the one thousand Buddhas of this fortunate eon and will be the next Buddha to come and teach in this world. For this reason He is sometimes called also the future or the coming Buddha. Currently He resides in Tushita heaven.

Maitri

(skt.: maitri; tib.: jam pa) Je Tsongkhapa described loving kindness in his Lam Rim Chen Mo as: loving kindness is the wish that beings encounter happiness.

Mala

(skt.: mala; tib.: treng wa) Rosary, a string of beads or other objects used to count mantras. Malas have usually 108 beads and are frequently carved from wood or bone. Some malas have counters which are usually used in retreats to help keep the track of the number of mantras recited.

Mandala
(skt.: mandala; tib.: kyil khor) Literally means center and border. 
1. A mandala is colorful geometric pattern, usually circular, that represents the body, speech, and mind of a Buddha. Mandalas typically depict symbolic representations of the universe or a Pureland. They are used for meditation, for initiations, to sanctify holy spaces, and other related purposes. Such mandalas can be made of powdered sand or cloth or if it is three dimensional it can be made of wood or metal.
2. A mandala offering is an offering of visualized Pureland. The Pureland (represented by mandala hand mudra or mandala offering set) is most frequently that depicted as a world system with Mount Meru in the center, around are four island-continents, which are adorned with flowers, jewels, offerings, etc.
Mantra

(skt.: mantra; tib.: ngak) Literally mind protection. A particular combination of Sanskrit syllables recited in conjunction with the practice of a particular meditational deity that embody the qualities of that deity. Each mantra has its specific function, for example to remove fear, to develop compassion, to increase wisdom etc. One of the most famous mantras, which is used mainly to develop compassion is the mantra of Chenrezig, the Buddha of compassion: Om Mani Padme Hum

Mantrayana

Also called Tantrayana (path of Tantra) or Vajrayana (path of Diamond) or Mantrayana (path of Mantra). It includes methods such as mantras and visualizations to work on ones subtle energies directly. Tantrayana is considered an abrupt path to the Enlightenment. It is an alternative to the safer, but longer Sutrayana path.

Mara

(skt.: mara; tib.: du) Literally it means murderer. The Tibetan word also means thick. Generally it represents the difficulties and delusions that distract practitioners from Dharma practice and cause suffering. Mara symbolizes the passions that overwhelm human beings as well as everything that hinders the arising of wholesome roots and progress on the path to enlightenment. It is also what Lord Shakyamuni Buddha overcame under the bodhi tree as he attained enlightenment.

Mental affliction

(skt.: klesha; tib.: nyon mong) Sometimes translated also as disturbing emotion. Mental afflictions are obscurations covering the essentially pure nature of the mind, being thereby responsible for suffering and dissatisfaction. There are six root mental afflictions (attachment, anger, pride, ignorance, doubt and wrong views), which act as the roots of the auxiliary disturbing emotions and attitudes.

Merit

(skt.: punya; tib.: so nam) Positive imprints left on the mind by virtuous, or Dharma, actions. The principal cause of happiness. We create merits by dedicating positive karma for spiritual goals, like Buddhahood.

Middle way
(skt.: madhyamika; tib.: uma) It is a system founded by Nagarjuna in the second century C.E., based on the Prajnaparamita Sutras of Shakyamuni Buddha, and considered to be the supreme presentation of the wisdom of emptiness. This view holds that all phenomena are empty of self existance and that they arise by dependant origination. It is called middle way because it avoids the two mistaken extremes (so it is in the middle of these two extremes):
1. seeing things as self existent (eternalism)
2. seeing things as non existent (nihilism)
Mind training
(tib.: lo jong) Literally it means mind training. Mind training tradition came to Tibet with Atisha who regarded these teachings as most precious. They are instructions developing the Mind of Enlightenment and are adorned by three qualities:
- They are transforming selfishness into concern for others. (This way they are eliminating the core obstruction to our happiness and spiritual progress.)
- They are transforming adverse situations into advantages. (They see the real enemy in disturbing emotions.)
- They encourage us to watch all phenomena as like illusions.

Language

Words of Wisdom

"There is no evil similar to anger and no discipline like patience, strive always therefore for tolerance, cultivating it in varied ways."
- Shantideva

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