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(skt.: kalyanamitra; tib.: ge she) Literally virtuous friend. This title was given to spiritual masters in Atishas Kadam tradition, but nowadays it is more used as an academic title for a learned monk, who finished his study of important Buddhist scriptures and underwent series of rigorous oral examinations characterized by vigorous debate. According to the level of Geshe degree, it can take up to 25 years of study to reach it. There are usually four levels of Geshes: Lharampa (the highest, equivalent to PhD on the west), Tsogrampa, Dorampa and Lingse (the lowest).

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